Innovations at the nanoscale can create enormous opportunities for the improved storage and transmission of information. Traditionally, we have used photons to transmit information at varying wavelengths and electrons to transmit information through the transport of their electronic charge. As an alternative to electronic charge, the storage and transport of electronic spin in semiconductor devices - "spintronics", may revolutionize the electronic device industry, with spin based transistors , opto-electronic devices, and memory. Nanophotonic and Nanoelectronic technologies promise not only more compact and rapid information processing, but also dramatically new means of accessing and controlling photons and charge. Accessing the nanoscale makes possible new paradigms of computation such as quantum information processing.